Policies on Ethics of the Center for International Journalism, a Division of the Galloway Family Foundation
The Mission of the Center
1. The mission of the Center for International Journalism (“Center”) is to create and distribute high-quality news reports, accurate information and thoughful commentary in the field of human rights around the world.
2. In doing so, the Center will strive to deliver content of the highest quality and integrity, to serve readers by covering the news impartially and to treat news sources and subjects fairly and openly.
The Scope of This Policy
3. The policies set forth in this document apply to all staff members of the Center who engage in journalistic activity and to all lawyers and other contractors whose work affects the content produced by the Center.
4. The policies also apply to non-professional staff, including but not limited to administrative assistants and secretaries whose duties pertain to content produced by the Center.
5. Freelance journalists must agree to avoid conflicts of interest, real or apparent, before accepting employment with the Center and must abide by all the other ethics guidelines of the Center.
The Nature of This Policy
6. Every staff member of the Center and freelance journalist or other contractor employed by the Center must read these guidelines carefully and follow them in his or her work for the Center.
7. Staff and freelance journalists employed by the Center must avoid conflicts of interest, whether real or perceived. Such conflicts may lie in a journalist’s investments, interests or contacts and relationships with a wide variety of groups and individuals, including news sources, advertisers, advocacy groups, competitors and others. This policy statement cannot cover the specifics of each and every situation giving rise to a conflict of interest, but that fact must not be taken to mean that the policy does not apply. If a journalist or staff member is unsure about a situation he or she should bring it to the attention of the senior editor. The Center reserves the right to modify and expand the guidelines from time to time as it deems appropriate.
8. The authority to interpret and apply these guidelines is vested in the head of the Center. That duty may be delegated to a professional assistant, but the head of the Center remains responsible for decisions made in his or her name.
Relationship of the Center to the Galloway Family Foundation
9. The Center is a division of the Galloway Family Foundation (“GFF”). As a division of GFF, the Center is bound by the rules and standards established by the IRS for tax exempt organizations, and the Center will comply with all IRS rules, regulations and directions in all its activities. It is not envisioned that compliance with any IRS rule will in any way interfere with the standards of journalistic activities set forth in this document. If a question does arise, appropriate legal advice from qualified attorneys will be obtained and followed.
10. The Center is initially to be completely funded by GFF which in turn is funded by the Galloway family. It is possible that future funding for the work of the Center will be obtained from other foundations. In such circumstances, no funding will be accepted by the Center (or GFF for use by the Center) that in any way violates the ethical guidelines set forth in this document. As a general matter, the Center expects to follow the practices and policies of other tax exempt journalistic organizations such as ProPublica and the Center for Investigative Reporting in accepting monies from foundations or individual donors.
Specifically, no funding source will be allowed to influence the choice of subject matter for news articles or commentary or to affect the editorial content of material produced by the Center. The Center will at all times maintain total editorial control of all material it produces.
11. The Center (and GFF) currently maintains a relationship with GlobalPost, a Boston based online news organization. The Center will provide GlobalPost with op-ed pieces and a human rights blog, and will collaborate with GlobalPost to produce special reports. In the future, the Center may enter in similar relationships with other news organizations, whether tax-exempt or not.
In doing so, the Center will review the ethical guidelines of such entities to ensure that they are consistent with the guidelines set forth in this document.
12. GFF and its board members will not interfere with the editorial content produced by the Center, nor alter or violate the policies set forth in this document.
GFF will concern itself solely with budgetary issues and with the funding of the Center.
13. L. Thomas Galloway, as President of the GFF, will take part in several activities of the Center. He will write op-ed pieces and a human rights blog, and he will also engage in editorial oversight on the opinion side of the Center’s website. Mr. Galloway’s involvement with the website will be limited to opinion related work and will not affect the content of reporting done by the Center. Mr. Galloway will not control the editorial content of any reporting work produced by the Center, whether for GlobalPost or anywhere else. He may from time to time suggest subjects for news articles to the senior editor but he will not have the right to insist that they be executed, and he will not require that editors or reporters inform him about stories or the content of stories or video productions before publication or presentation.
Mr. Galloway is also engaged in a law practice with a firm which he controls – Galloway & Associates, PLLC. The firm is currently involved in the development of institutional clients in the fields of securities and health care litigation. There appears to be no conflict with any of the activities of the Center or for that matter between GFF, and the law practice. However, in order to avoid any conflict or any perception of conflict, Mr. Galloway will provide, either to a senior editor of the Center or to a mutually agreed-upon outside party, a quarterly list of all pending cases and defendants in any cases in which G&A has an economic interest. This will be done to ensure that there is no litigation, even in a different area of law, involving any entity that might be the subject of an article or opinion piece prepared by the Center. The Center will not purposely produce articles or opinion pieces or video productions that advance the interests of G&A or its clients.
14. The Center will serve its audience whether readers, viewers, or online users – according to the highest standards of impartiality and transparency. Whatever the medium, the Center will relate the complete, unvarnished truth as best the Center and its journalists can learn it. The Center will correct errors as soon as the Center becomes aware of them. Once the facts are ascertained, the Center will not wait for someone to request a correction, but will publish it in a prominent and appropriate location.
15. The Center will gather information for the benefit of its audience, and no journalist at the Center may use his or her position to make inquiries or acquire information or contacts for any purpose other than journalism.
16. Staff members and outside contributors on assignment to the Center should disclose their identities to people they cover, though they need not always announce their occupation when seeking information normally available to the public. Those working for the Center as journalists may not pose as anyone they are not – for example, as police officers or lawyers. In entering a foreign country that bars journalists, a staff member or contributor may be vague in declaring his or her occupation and reason for entry.
17. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. Staff members or freelance contributors who plagiarize betray the fundamental goals of the Center, as does anyone who knowingly or recklessly provides false information or doctored images for publication or who edits material out of context for dramatic purposes or to highlight a point.
18. News sources will be treated fairly and professionally. No one will threaten to damage uncooperative sources, or promise favorable coverage in return for cooperation. The Center will not pay for interviews or unpublished documents.
19. Relationships with sources require sound judgment and self-awareness to prevent real or apparent partiality. Cultivating sources is an essential skill, often practiced most effectively in informal settings outside of normal business hours. Staff members, however, will not allow personal relationships with news sources to erode into favoritism, in fact or appearance. Where friends and neighbors are also newsmakers, the Center’s staff and outside contributors will guard against giving these parties extra access.
20. Professional detachment, free of any hint of bias must be maintained at all times. Staff members may see sources informally over a meal or drinks, but they must keep in mind the difference between legitimate business and personal friendship.
Obeying the Law
21. Staff members and others on assignment must obey the law in the gathering of news. They may not break into buildings, homes, apartments or offices. They may not purloin data, documents or other property, including such electronic property as databases and e-mail or voice-mail messages. They may not tap telephones, invade computer files or otherwise eavesdrop electronically on news sources.
22. Journalists who obtain press cards, press license plates, parking permits or other identification from police or other official agencies may use those credentials only to do their jobs. Those whose duties do not require special credentials must not use them.
23. Staff members may not record private conversations without the prior consent of all parties to the conversations. In jurisdictions where recordings made secretly are legal, only the top manager of a news department may make an exception to this rule, and only after consultation with our legal department. Except in limited circumstances, we do not use hidden cameras; any exceptions should first be discussed with the top newsroom manager and the legal department.
Payment of Expenses
24. When the Center staff or outside contributors entertain news sources (including government officials) or travel to cover them, the Center will pay its own expenses. In some business situations and in some cultures, it may be unavoidable to accept a meal or a drink paid for by a news source (for example, at an official’s residence or in a company’s private dining room). Whenever practical, however, these circumstances should be avoided. Routine refreshments at an event like a news conference are acceptable, but a staff member should not attend recurring breakfast or lunch meetings unless the Center pays for the journalist’s meals.
25. Center staff members may not accept free or discounted transportation and lodging except where special circumstances give little or no choice and then only after consultation with a senior editor. Such special cases include certain military or scientific expeditions and other trips for which alternative arrangements would be impractical — for example, an interview aboard a corporate jet where there is no benefit other than the interview.
Dealing With Competitors
26. The Center will compete zealously but deal with competitors openly and honestly and not invent obstacles to hamstring their efforts. Where we first use facts originally reported by another news organization, we attribute them.
27. With the exception of press pool arrangements imposed by news sources, Center staff members may not join teams covering news events for other organizations (unless their work is part of a duly authorized joint venture), and they may not accept payment from competitors for news tips. Staff members and freelance journalists will not provide information about ongoing stories to other news organizations and will maintain confidentiality about editorial decisions and discussions of the Center.
Protecting The Neutrality of the Center
28. Staff members and those on assignment for the Center may not accept anything that could be construed as a payment for favorable coverage or for avoiding unfavorable coverage. Center staff may not accept gifts, tickets, discounts, reimbursements or other benefits from individuals or organizations covered (or likely to be covered) by their newsroom. Gifts should be returned.
29. Staff members and those on assignment for the Center may not accept employment or compensation of any sort from individuals or organizations who figure in coverage they are likely to provide, prepare or supervise. The senior executive of each newsroom may authorize reasonable exceptions (for example, to let a teacher work part time as a copy editor).
30. Staff members may normally accept those gifts or discounts available to the general public. Normally they are also free to take advantage of conventional corporate discounts that the Center shares with all employees (for example, corporate car rental rates).
Advice to Others
31. It is an inherent conflict for a journalist to perform public relations work, paid or unpaid. Staff members may not counsel individuals or organizations on how to deal successfully with the news media. They may not, for example, advise candidates for public office, write or edit annual reports, or contribute to the programs of sports teams.
32. The Center staff and contractors will refer inquiries as to the normal workings of the Center to a designated person at the Center to ensure consistency in responses.
33. The Center staff and outside contributors should not take part in public relations workshops that charge admission or imply privileged access to the press, or participate in surveys asking their opinion of an organization’s media relations or public image.
34. The Center staff or outside contributors may not serve as ghostwriters or co-authors for people or groups who figure in coverage they are likely to provide, prepare or supervise for the Center. They may not undertake such assignments for organizations that espouse a cause.
Entering Competitions and Contests
35. The Center staff members may not enter local, national or international competitions sponsored by individuals or groups who have a direct interest in the content produced by the Center. Center staff may not act as judges for these competitions or accept their awards. Common examples are contests sponsored by commercial, political or professional associations to judge coverage of their own affairs.
36. With the approval of the Center, Center staff members may compete in competitions sponsored by groups whose members are all journalists or whose members demonstrably have no direct interest in the tenor of coverage of the field being judged. For example, a staff member may enter a university-sponsored competition for coverage of foreign affairs but not accept an advocacy group’s prize for environmental coverage.
Barring Collaboration, Testimonials and Public Speaking
37. Center staff members and others on assignment for the Center may not collaborate in ventures with individuals or organizations that are related in any way to their work with the Center unless a senior editor or manager provides permission in writing. Among other things, this prohibition applies to writing books, pamphlets, reports, scripts, scores or any other material and to making photographs or creating artwork of any sort. Exceptions may be granted by the senior editor. For example, a reporter who sells film rights to an article published by the Center may be allowed to work as a screenwriter or adviser to the film.
38. Center staff members should not as a matter of course offer endorsements or testimonials for books, films, television programs or any other programs, products or ventures. Such offers should be referred to a senior editor or manager.
39. Speaking before community audiences or educational groups can benefit the Center by helping the public understand what the Center does. Before appearing before an outside group, however, the Center must first determine whether there is an actual or apparent conflict of interest which would undermine public trust in the impartiality of the Center’s journalism.
40. Center staff members should be sensitive to the appearance of partiality when they address groups that relate to their coverage, especially if the setting might suggest a close relationship to the sponsoring group.
41. To avoid an appearance of undue closeness, Center staff members may not accept invitations to speak before a single company or an industry assembly.
42. Center staff members should not accept invitations from outside the Center to speak where their function is to attract customers to an event primarily intended as profit-making.
43. Where permitted by local policy, and with the approval of the Center, staff members delivering speeches may accept fees, honorariums, expense reimbursement and free transportation, but only from educational or other nonprofit groups for which lobbying and political activity are not a major focus. A staff member must consult with the head of the Center before accepting a substantial speaking fee.
44. Any Center staff member who accepts fees, honorariums or expenses for speaking engagements must file an annual report with the Center.
Relationship to Center
45. The name of the Center cannot be exploited for private purposes.
46. Center staff members may not use any Center identification cards for purposes not connected with their work. ID or business cards may not be used to obtain special treatment or advantage from governmental, commercial or other organizations.
47. Center staff members may not use company stationery, business cards, forms or other materials for any purpose except official business.
48. Staff members must not disclose confidential information about the operations, policies or plans of the Center.
49. Any Center staff member may respond openly and honestly to a reasonable inquiry from a reader about the staff member’s work. If a reader asks for a correction, that request must be passed promptly to the appropriate person at the Center. If the request threatens legal action or appears to be from a lawyer, the complaint should be promptly referred to the head of the Center.
Voting, Campaigns and Public Issues
50. Center staff members are, of course, entitled to vote and to register in party primaries, but they must do nothing that might raise questions about their professional neutrality or that of the news operations of the Center. In particular, Center staff may not campaign for, demonstrate for, or endorse candidates, ballot causes or efforts to enact legislation. They may not wear campaign buttons or themselves display any other insignia of partisan politics.
51. Center staff members may not themselves give money to any political candidate or election cause or raise money for one.
52. Center staff members may not march or rally in support of public causes or movements or sign advertisements or petitions taking a position on public issues. They may not lend their names to campaigns, benefit dinners or similar events if doing so might reasonably raise doubts about their ability or their newsroom’s ability to remain neutral in covering the news.
Protections Against Financial Conflicts
53. Every staff member must be vigilant against any appearance of abusing nonpublic information for financial gain.
54. No Center staff member may own stock or have any other financial interest, including a board membership, in a company, enterprise or industry about which she or he regularly furnishes, prepares or supervises coverage.
55. Center staff members may not buy or sell securities or make other investments in anticipation of coming news coverage.
56. The public applies exacting standards to all journalism and does not normally distinguish between the work of staff members and that of outside freelancers. Thus as far as possible, freelance contributors to the Center’s journalism, while not its employees, should accept the same ethical standards as staff members as a condition of their assignments for the Center. If they violate these standards, they will be denied further assignments.
57. Before being given an assignment, freelance contributors must sign a contract with the Center. Such a contract will oblige them to avoid conflicts of interests or the appearance of conflict. Specifically, in connection with their work for us, freelancers will not accept free transportation, free lodging, gifts, junkets, commissions or assignments from current or potential news sources. Independent broadcast producers, similarly, must comply with our ethical standards during their preparation of any news production that will bear the name of the Center.
58. Center personnel who deal with nonstaff contributors should be aware that a freelancer’s previous involvements and professional behavior can prove an embarrassment. They should make every effort to insure that a freelancer has no history or ties that would raise a real or apparent conflict of interest on a particular assignment.
59. The provisions of the Center’s freelance contracts cannot cover every circumstance that might arise. Assigning editors should ensure that contributors are aware of this set of rules and to the greatest extent possible honor its provisions while on assignment for us. Any disagreement over whether a specific provision applies to outside contributors should be resolved before the assignment proceeds.
60. The policy of the Center is that before any work or content is published in any media it may be reviewed by competent counsel for defamation/libel liabilities. This review by counsel shall be conducted in the manner normally done by other journalistic organizations and will not affect the content of the work produced other than work which might concur libel/slander or other similar liabilities for the Center or GFF.